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Surveillance, case investigation and epidemiological protocols

Name of documentReference to older peopleLast updated
Surveillance protocol for SARS-CoV-2 infection among health workersNo specific reference to older people28 May 2020
Ethical considerations to guide the use of digital proximity tracking technologies for COVID-19 contact tracingReliance on digital proximity tracking for contact tracing, to the exclusion of the traditional approaches, will reduce access to essential services for the marginalized populations, especially the elderly and people living in poverty.28 May 2020
Assessment of risk factors for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in health workers: protocol for a case-control studyNo specific reference to older people26 May 2020
Population-based age-stratified seroepidemiological investigation protocol for coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) infectionNo specific reference to older people26 May 2020
Surveillance strategies for COVID-19 human infectionEssential surveillance for COVID-19
- Surveillance for vulnerable or high-risk populations should be enhanced. This will require a combination of surveillance systems including contact tracing in the entire health care system, at the community level, as well as in closed residential settings and for vulnerable groups.
Enhanced Surveillance for Residential Facilities and Vulnerable Groups
- Dedicated enhanced surveillance for some high-risk groups is necessary to ensure the prompt detection of cases and clusters, faster than through primary-care or hospital-based surveillance. People who live in closed environments, such as prisons, or residential facilities, such as retirement communities or care homes for persons with disabilities, can be especially vulnerable because they may not be able to seek help themselves. Vulnerable groups may also live in settings where the probability of transmission is higher than in the general population or have health conditions or predisposing factors that increase their risk of severe illness. Enhanced surveillance includes the use of active case finding, as through daily screening of signs and symptoms, including daily temperature monitoring, and daily zero-reporting for all individuals in high-risk groups under surveillance
10 May 2020
Contact tracing in the context of COVID-19Background
- For contact tracing to be effective, countries must have adequate capacity to test suspect cases in a timely manner. Where this is not possible, testing3 and contact tracing strategies may instead focus on specific high-risk settings with vulnerable individuals, such as hospitals, care homes, or other closed settings (e.g. dormitories)
Engaging communities
- Communication about contact tracing should emphasize solidarity, reciprocity, and the common good. By participating in contact tracing, communities will contribute to controlling local spread of COVID-19, vulnerable people will be protected, and more restrictive measures, such as general stay-at-home orders, might be avoided or minimized
Epidemiological scenarios
- community transmission: contact tracing may be difficult when transmission is intense but should be carried out as much as possible, focusing on household contacts, health care workers, high-risk closed settings (dormitories, institutions, long term-care homes), and vulnerable contacts, as well as maintaining strong contact tracing capacity in areas with smaller clusters of cases.
10 May 2020
Global surveillance for COVID-19 caused by human infection with COVID-19 virus: interim guidanceRecommendations for reporting surveillance data to WHO
- Weekly number of new confirmed cases by age-group in years (using: 0-<5, 5-14, 15-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74, 75-84, 85 and above, age missing)
Weekly number of new confirmed case deaths by age-group in years (using: 0-<5, 5-14, 15-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74, 75-84, 85 and above, age missing)
20 Apr 2020
Considerations in the investigation of cases and clusters of COVID-19No specific reference to older people2 Apr 2020
Household transmission investigation protocol for 2019-novel coronavirus (COVID-19) infectionNo specific reference to older people28 Feb 2020
COVID-19 Early Epidemiologic and Clinical investigations for public health responseNo specific reference to older people24 Feb 2020
The first few X cases and contacts (‎FFX)‎ investigation protocol for coronavirus disease 2019 (‎COVID-19)‎, version 2.2No specific reference to older people23 Feb 2020
Surface sampling of coronavirus disease (‎COVID-19)‎: a practical “how to” protocol for health care and public health professionalsNo specific reference to older people18 Feb 2020
Protocol for assessment of potential risk factors for 2019-novel coronavirus (COVID-19) infection among health care workers in a health care settingNo specific reference to older people25 Jan 2020
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